Frequently Asked Questions for new KU students:

How do I change my interest code to PreDentistry?

If you're currently a KU undergraduate student, send ane-mail to from your KU email address asking to add the appropriate PreHealth interest code to your student record.

What personal qualities are important for future medical professionals?

  • Warmth, compassion and genuine concern for people
  • A well-informed passion for the profession
  • Sincerity, honesty and integrity
  • The ability to actively listen
  • The ability to communicate clearly, through writing, talking and non-verbal cues
  • Problem-solving and critical-thinking skills
  • Thoughtfulness, balanced by the ability to make difficult decisions
  • Confidence, not arrogance
  • A positive and enthusiastic outlook
  • Awareness of current events and social issues
  • Appreciation and respect for cultural diversity
  • A desire to work hard
  • Enthusiasm for learning
  • Appreciation for science, both the process and the value of tested knowledge
  • Comfort with uncertainty
  • Patience
  • Maturity
  • Professionalism
  • Humility - True gratitude for the help, opportunities and privileges one has received
  • A sense of social responsibility - a demonstrated desire to serve those who need help

The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has posted a similar set of Core Competencies for Entering Medical Students, with further explanation.

What's the best premedical degree and major?

Because major and degree aren't central considerations for admission, the best choice is the best fit for your academic and other career interests.

In general, any bachelor's degree and major is fine.

Some professional school majors would, however, take longer than four years to complete, together with added with premedical requirements.

It’s important to actively think about possible majors and degrees, however, it’s also fine to enter as exploring, and figure them out along the way.

What courses should I take in my first semester?

​It depends on your interests, major, degree, transfer courses and placement, however, a typical first-semester schedule might include English, math or general chemistry I with lab, an introductory major course or molecular & cellular biology, a second-language or social science course, and a university or major orientation class. Here are some sample schedules:​

For a MATH 002-eligible B.A. Degree, Exploring Majors:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3 credit hours)
  • MATH 002 Intermediate Algebra (3)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)
  • Second-Language (3-5)
  • UNIV 101 Orientation Seminar (2)


For a MATH 101-eligible B.A. Degree, Exploring Majors:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • MATH 101 College Algebra or MATH 104 Pre-Calculus (3-5)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)
  • Second-Language (3-5)
  • UNIV 101 Orientation Seminar (2)


For a MATH 115-eligible B.A. Degree, with an Anthropology Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5)
  • ANTH 150 Becoming Human (3)
  • Second-Language (5)


For a MATH 115-eligible B.S. Degree, with a Behavioral Neuroscience Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5)
  • PSYC 102 Psychology Major Orientation Seminar (1)
  • PSYC 104 General Psychology (3)
  • MATH 115 Calculus I (3)​


For a MATH 115-eligible B.A. Degree, with a Biology Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3 credit hours)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5 credit hours)
  • BIOL 105 Biology Major Orientation Seminar (1)
  • BIOL 150 Principles of Molecular & Cellular Biology (4)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)


For a MATH 115-eligible B.S. Degree, with a Business Administration Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5)
  • PSYC 104 General Psychology (3)
  • MATH 115 Calculus I (3)
  • BUS 110 1st Year Business Experience (1)


For a MATH 115-eligible B.S. Degree, with an Exercise Science Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3 credit hours)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5 credit hours)
  • BIOL 150 Principles of Molecular & Cellular Biology (4)
  • HSES 269 Introduction to Exercise Science (3)


For a MATH 115-eligible B.A. Degree, with a Psychology Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5)
  • PSYC 102 Psychology Major Orientation Seminar (1)
  • PSYC 104 General Psychology (3)
  • Second Language (5)


For a MATH 115-eligible B.A. Degree, with a Spanish Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 130 General Chemistry I (5)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)
  • SPAN 101 Orientation Seminar for Spanish & Portuguese (1)
  • As placed, e.g., SPAN 324 Grammar and Composition (3)
  • As placed, e.g., SPAN 328 Intermediate Spanish Conversation (2)


For a MATH 125-eligible B.S. Degree, with a Biochemistry Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 170 Chemistry  for Chemical Sciences I (5)​
  • BIOL 105 Biology Major Orientation Seminar (1)
  • BIOL 150 Principles of Molecular & Cellular Biology (4)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)


For a MATH 125-eligble B.S Degree, with a Chemistry Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • CHEM 180 Chemistry Major Orientation Seminar (.5)
  • CHEM 170 Chemistry  for Chemical Sciences I (5)​
  • MATH  125 Calculus I (4)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)


For a MATH 125-eligble B.S Degree, with a Chemical Engineering Major:

  • ENGL 101 Composition, or as placed by English ACT score or credit (3)
  • C&PE 111 Introduction to the Profession (2)
  • CHEM 170 Chemistry  for Chemical Sciences I (5)​
  • MATH  125 Calculus I (4)
  • PSYC 104, SOC 104, SOC 160 or any KU Core Goal 3H (3)

How can I perform well in college courses?

1. Get your textbooks before classes begin, and read ahead. Finish the tables of contents and first chapters before the first day of classes, and keep-up with all your reading assignments.

2. Go to class!

3. Some lectures will be large. If you sit toward the front and center of the class, it'll be easier to connect with what your instructor is saying.

4. While in class, take useful notes. This doesn't mean writing down every word your instructor says. Instead, develop an outline, the essence of what your instructor is saying.

5. Take responsibility for your interest by actively listening and studying. Ask yourself questions: "What are examples of a concept?," "What are limits of principles?," "How do concepts relate to each other?," "What are analogies, similar relationships in different fields?," and, "What's coming next?" 

6. If you have questions, or need to clarify difficult concepts, talk with your instructor. If you can't do this in class, make an appointment to meet with your instructor during office hours.

7. To perform well, develop and follow a weekly schedule to get yourself to actively study an average of at least two hours outside of class for each hour in lecture.

8. Rather than studying one topic for many hours, spend a part of each day studying for each class.

9. Similarly, it's helpful to break large tasks, like term papers, into smaller, manageable pieces. 

10. Take advantage of the many educational resources available to you, especially PLUS sessions, Help Rooms, Test Reviews, Writing Center and all the supports, including low-cost tutoring, Supplemental Instruction Sessions and individual consultations available from the Academic Achievement & Access Center.

What medically-related student organizations can I join?
How can I earn substantial recommendation letters from faculty?

When you apply, you will need recommendation letters from faculty who know you well! Many professional schools require two letters from faculty, and a few medical schools require three. Many require at least one from a natural sciences faculty member, and a few require two. Most core science lectures are large. So, beyond taking advantage of office hours, here are some ways you can help faculty get to know you:

1. Regularly consult with a faculty advisor in your major department. Advising isn’t just about having enrollment holds lifted. Faculty know much about the content of courses and sequences that make the most sense for your major and degree program, and related extra-curricular opportunities. If you're  a biology major, see the Undergraduate Biology List of Faculty Advisors by Specialty Area.

2. If you have a passion for science, you can volunteer to help with a research project. See the Center for Undergraduate Research's Tips for Getting Started.

3. Take some smaller classes with a more interactive format. There really are many smaller, more focused topics courses, from which you can choose. Along the same line, even if you’re not in the Honors Program, if you find an Honors course you’re very interested in, you can try asking for the instructor’s permission to take the course.

4. And, as a fun way of getting to know faculty, the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences sponsors a Take Your Professor to Lunch Program.

If I'm not doing well, should I drop/withdraw from a course?

From an academic advising standpoint, it’s better to withdraw than to earn an F.

D’s are passing for College of Liberal Arts & Sciences degree and major requirements; however, they have a lot of impact on GPA. You have to weigh which is more important to you.

With a "C" or better, if you understand the terminology and concepts, you're usually better off finishing a course, moving forward, and studying to earn A's in more advanced courses.

Before withdrawing, always call 785-864-4700 to talk with a Financial Aid Counselor about the possible financial and scholarship consequences. There are many other standpoints to consider, as withdrawing can have implications for living in student housing, international student visa status, coverage by a parent's health and car insurance, NCAA eligibility, etc. I'm not saying you'll lose everything, just that you should check with experts for all aspects of your situation.

If I didn't do well, should I retake a course?

In general, with a "C" or better and understanding, I recommend moving forward, and studying to perform better in more advanced courses.

With a "C" and lack of understanding, "D" or "F," and continued interest in a program that requires the course, I recommend retaking before moving forward. As to what happens with the grades, it's complicated:

See KU's full policy at 2.2.8 Grade Replacement Policy in Repeat Courses:

If you initially earned a "D" or an "F" in a KU lower-level course (000-299), and meet all the other conditions in the policy, the grade from retaking the course at KU will replace the earlier grade in figuring your KU GPA. The original course and grade will, however, still appear on your transcript, and will be reported in your application to professional programs.

Different application services, and the professional schools they serve, use their own policies for figuring applicant GPA's!

For example, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service (AACOMAS) and American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) do NOT allow grade replacement. All college grades are included in figuring GPA, math & science GPA, etc. 

In general, receiving application services and graduate professional programs follow their own rules to calculate a GPA, regardless of the policies used to figure your GPA at KU or other colleges or universities. So, if you're thinking about retaking a course to improve your application GPA, it's important to check with professional school admissions offices to see how this action will be received.

Admissions decisions are made by people, not just numbers. So, even if a school or application service doesn't practice grade replacement, retaking a course can help answer the question raised by an initially weak performance.

If you get a "D" or an "F" in a course at a four-year college or university, retaking at a community college does more to confirm the problem, than to address the issue.

Because retaking gives you a huge advantage over students taking a course for the first time, there is an expectation that you should do significantly better, i.e., you shouldn't retake a class unless you'll improve your performance by at least two letter grades.


Frequently Asked Application Questions!

How should I prepare for the Admissions Test?

Thoroughly review; don't take real tests for practice; do take practice tests.

We recommend finishing courses that cover test topics before taking an admissions test, however, it's fine to be finishing the last of those courses as you prepare for the test. Additional biology courses are helpful, but not absolutely necessary. 

If you finish all the core courses by the end of your sophomore year, you could take the admissions test early, perhaps in August before your junior year. Most people take the test in May or June at the end of their junior year. If you don't do as well as you need to in May or June, you can do more reviewing and practicing over the summer, and retake in August or September.

Whether you decide to review and practice on your own, with friends, or through a commercial preparation course, give yourself at least 300 hours over five months for the MCAT, 200 hours over four months for the DAT or OAT, or 100 hours over two months for the GRE to work all the way through a comprehensive review guide or series, and to take at least five full-length, computerized practice exams. 

Do take lots of practice tests, but don't take a real test for practice! All of your scores are released, and can be considered for admission.

Should I retake the Admissions Test?

In general, if you scored lower than average for admission, you have indications you can do significantly better, and you are motivated to thoroughly review and practice, then signs point to re-taking. 

Here are some further considerations:

  • Looking at your past history, how have you tended to perform on standardized tests?
  • How well did you prepare? Did you thoroughly review and take practice tests?
  • How did you score on practice tests?
  • How did you feel the actual test went for you? Were you sick? Were you overly anxious? Did you run out of time before answering all the questions?, etc.
  • Do you feel your scores accurately represent your ability?
  • How competitive are the other aspects of your candidacy? Grades, activities, recommendations, etc.
  • Are there important contexts for interpreting your scores? Are you disadvantaged, coping with a learning disability, a first-generation college student, was English your second language?, etc.
  • Where would you like to go to school? Admissions guides usually list average test scores for accepted candidates. Schools also have different policies for how they will use the scores from multiple tests.
  • What was your overall performance? Dental schools usually use the academic average, but differ in how they use the perceptual ability score. Optometry schools usually use the academic average. And, medical schools usually use the total of the section scores.
  • Are there individual scores which might be seen as significant weaknesses?
  • What happened to other people who re-took the test with similar initial scores? In general, those who scored lower than average tend to improve, while those who scored higher than average, often score lower on a re-take.
  • How thoroughly would you prepare for a retake?
  • What opportunities would you miss out on by re-taking the test? Would your time, effort and money be better spent strengthening other aspects of your candidacy, or do you really need an improved score to be competitive?
  • Do you want to retake the test? Are you energized enough to do the preparation and practice necessary to improve your scores?
  • And, if you do decide to take the test again, don't fall into the trap of studying just for the test you already took. It's important to re-review for all the topics that could be sampled!

Who should I ask for Evaluation Letters?

Most professional schools require at least three letters, and many medical schools have a limit of five.

Many require two letters from faculty, including at least one from the natural sciences.

Many dental, optometry and osteopathic medical schools require at least one letter from someone in the profession.

Aim for both depth, substantial letters from people who know you well, and breadth, people who've supervised you in different kinds of courses and activities. One might, for medical schools, get two letters from faculty, including at least one from natural sciences, one letter from a healthcare experience supervisor, and additional letters from a physician or surgeon who mentored you, supervisors of other research, social service, leadership, internships, tutoring, study abroad, or employment activities. A few medical schools want three faculty letters, including two from natural science subjects.

Many schools prohibit letters from family, friends, neighbors, relatives, your elected representatives, or people who cannot speak for your abilities after high school.

Most schools ask for a letter from a health sciences committee or advisor, because they want to make sure you don't go around a central evaluation system, if it exists. Like most large, public universities, there are far too many candidates at KU for a central evaluation by a single advisor or committee. So, you should seek letters from people who've directly supervised you in the classroom and profession-related activities.

How should I ask for Evaluation Letters?

1. Make appointments to meet with potential evaluators at least one-month before you need their letters.

2. Explain why you would like to become a health care professional, and how your activities have informed and prepared you for this profession. Then ask if they are willing to write a supportive letter for you.

3. Give each writer a folder with a copy of your Academic Advising Report, a resume listing relevant activities, admission test scores and percentile values (if you have them), a draft of your personal comments essay, photo (optional) and specific directions for sending their letters to an application service. If your writers will send a letter through the mail, rather than electronically, please provide them with a pre-addressed and stamped envelope.

4. Put a reasonable deadline on the outside of the folder. It depends on the timing of the rest of your application, however, August 1st works well with most application timelines, with about a one-month cushion before most schools start interviewing candidates.

5. Check to make sure all of your letters arrive, and gently remind writers if they miss your initial deadline.

6. Thank your evaluators in writing for their help, and let them know if you are accepted!

How should I write the Personal Statement?

There are many ways of writing personal statements that can work well. One possibility is a narrative approach:

1. Write four or five one-paragraph stories, showing yourself in action, serving others and learning about your chosen profession. Stories usually include a setting, characters, an event - interaction between the characters, and synthesis - production of thoughts, feelings, values, understandings and personal development. 

2. Weave the paragraphs together, ordering them logically and adding light transitions. 

3. And, add a brief one-paragraph conclusion, that both reflects back - noting themes, thoughts and meaning, and points forward - toward a promising future!

Writing Tips:

  • Use your own words. Don't derive your statement from an example on a website, and don't use quotes or clichés.
  • Show with true stories. Rather than telling your readers you're compassionate, use a story that shows you in action, compassionately serving others.
  • Jump directly to action - there's no need for a formal introduction.
  • Get quickly to the profession you want to enter, no later than the second paragraph.
  • Write with feelings! Show your passion! ​
  • Write meaningful stories. And, don't confuse drama with meaning. For example, one might learn more about medicine by seeing a physician prioritize prescriptions to fit a patient's limited budget, than by watching the treatment of a patient with a dramatic emergency, like a heart attack. 
  • Go deeper than wanting to help people with science. To go beyond, it's helpful to brainstorm 20 reasons for wanting to help people, 20 reasons for appreciating science and 20 reasons for becoming this kind of professional. What can you do as a member of this profession that you can you cannot do in other professions?
  • Focus more on your experiential preparation, than on your personal career decision process.​ What you've done is much more engaging than what you think.
  • Focus on patients, not just procedures or illnesses. Use "person with" language - never label patients by their conditions.
  • Provide details, examples and explanations. Name the people (except the patients) and places (towns, schools, etc.). Describe how you were involved in research projects. What you did as a health care volunteer, etc. Who, what, when, where, how, and why.
  • Examples first, then conclusions. Inductive reasoning is more persuasive than deductive reasoning. If space is tight, it's usually better to give examples, and let your readers draw their own conclusions.
  • Write well, however, don't get too over-the-top creative. 
  • Think of your audience, mostly academic (PhD) and clinical (members of the profession) faculty.
  • Don’t try to impress Selection Committee Members with how much you already know about medicine.
  • Avoid criticizing members of the profession. Some candidates argue they want to become doctors, because they think they could do a better job than some professionals they've encountered. This may be true, but it sets a negative tone, and invites a defensive reaction.
  • It’s fine to include a story about an isolated illness or personal struggle, however, please avoid listing a lot of problems and illnesses. Frequent illnesses and personal problems aren't valid reasons for becoming a health professional, and can raise doubts about the likelihood of successfully completing a medical education. ​
  • Offer explanations for significant weaknesses. Take responsibility for your decisions, especially regarding the use of your time. How have you overcome problems, and what have you learned from these experiences?
  • Show respect for research, not just, “I tried it, and would rather work with people.”
  • Keep a positive balance, tempered by realism.
  • Keep a spirit of gratitude for the opportunities you've been given.
  • Show integrity and consistency.
  • Show you are a good choice for the profession, not just you feel the profession is a good career choice for you.
  • And, end with a solid conclusion!

Editing Tips:

  • Avoid overusing "I," "that," "have," or other words. It's easy to fall into the trap of using too many "I's," especially at the beginning of sentences. Some strategies for reducing I's include focusing more on other people, using other personal pronouns (e.g., we), chaining (e.g., I did this. I did that. I did the other = I did this, that and the other.), and removing unnecessary double I's (e.g., I believe I want = I want). "That's" should always be checked to see if they're grammatically necessary!​
  • Use an active voice. I have been shadowing Dr. Xavier = I shadowed Dr. Xavier. 
  • It’s okay to use contractions, however, keep the level of formality consistent. If applying to schools in the northeast, you might want to write more formally.
  • Use one space between sentences, not two.
  • Use commas after a setting in place in time, and to break out clauses in longer sentences.
  • Do put line breaks between paragraphs, however, don't indent your paragraphs. Indents just waste characters.
  • “Almost all punctuation goes within quotation marks.”
  • Introduce your acronyms (IYA).
  • Organize your statement. Let your structure flow from the content you have chosen. Most people organize chronologically, however, don't let explaining a timeline get in the way of telling your story. There are other approaches that can work well. 
  • Constructively fill most of the space you're given. This isn't a ten-page English essay, so you don't need to fluff up your sentences, or repeat what you've already written. Keep moving forward, and usefully fill most of the space for the statement.
  • Have expert readers review your statement. Have a KU Writing Center Consultant or English instructor, parent and a member of the profession review your statement. 
  • Don’t get too attached to your words. Writing well involves almost as much destruction as creation.
  • Your essay will never be perfect, however, there’ll come a time, usually ~July 1st, when you must let it go by submitting your application!

How should I prepare for the Interview?

When you go for an interview, you usually participate in a day's worth of activities designed to help familiarize you with a particular school. This typically involves a tour, an overview of the curriculum, lunch with students or faculty, and a financial aid meeting.

As part of the day, you'll have an interview or interviews with representatives from the admissions committee. Your interviewers will likely include faculty, and may include admissions staff, a member of the profession, and/or a student at the school.

Prepare: Be sure to re-read your personal comments essay, and supplemental question answers. Research the schools where you are interviewing. What do they list as their accomplishments? What kinds of research programs do they emphasize? Do they have an honor code for students?

Practice: Don't rehearse answers for particular questions, but do practice the general art of answering questions. If you're a KU student or alum, you can work with University Career Services, which has an online Practice Medical School Interview Module, and you can call 785-864-3624 to schedule an in-person practice interview.

Act Professionally: Dress appropriately, as you would if you were working in a professional environment. Most men wear suits, and most women wear a professional looking suit or dress. Turn your cell phone off, or, better yet, leave it in your car. Include titles, like "Dr.," when addressing people. Make sure you arrive on time. If you're delayed, call the Admissions Office to explain.

Present yourself openly and honestly. Professional schools have room for different kinds of people. Some candidates come across as more passionate, while others are more calm. Some are more decisive, others more thoughtful. Above all, try to stay in the moment, and actively attend to your interviewers and their questions.

It's normal to feel nervous, especially at the beginning. Some questions may throw you for a moment, but most candidates recover. If you're stumped, it's fine to say, "I don't know;" and it's also okay to thoughtfully pause and gather your thoughts before answering questions.

Don't try to be someone you're not, but do try to put your best qualities forward. Interviewers look for experience and understanding, a passion for the profession, sincerity and honesty, the ability to communicate clearly, warmth and compassion, confidence (not arrogance), down-to-earthness, a positive and enthusiastic outlook, ethical integrity, the ability to reason through challenging problems, awareness of current events and social issues, a respect for other people and their opinions, a willingness to work hard, a love for learning, maturity, professionalism, and a sense of social responsibility and commitment to service.

It's not as common practice as it is for job interviews, however, it's okay to send a thank you card to interviewers. Just be sure the note you write is both professional (check spellings, and include the interviewer's title) and personal, referencing the specific conversation you had during the interview, rather than generic.

Themes for Interview Questions

There are countless possible interview questions, so rehearsing answers isn't very useful. You may, however, want to think about some of the common themes for questions:

  • Who are you? How are you different from other people who are applying?
  • How have you prepared yourself to become a member of this profession?
  • Why do you want to become a member of this profession?
  • What are your professional goals?
  • How familiar are you with the health care system, and related issues?
  • How do you reason through ethical dilemmas, and other kinds of problems? 
  • Why are you interested in our school?
  • And, what questions do you have for your interviewers?

And, you can find feedback from many candidates who've interviewed on the Student Doctor Network.

If I'm not accepted, what should I do?

Not being accepted gives you the opportunity reflect, and deeply consider whether to re-apply or shift toward a different career path.

If you decide to re-apply, talk with representatives from admissions offices.

In most cases, a "How can I strengthen my candidacy?" approach is more constructive than "Why wasn't I accepted?" Because there really are more qualified candidates than seats, there are often no satisfying answers to "why" questions.

For those with similar qualification to many who were accepted, it's not a satisfying answer, however, many accepted candidates are re-applicants who've had more time to learn, gain experience and mature. Often, the judgment of selection committee members is more "not-yet-ready" than "will-never-accept."

If you want to strengthen your qualifications, you can consider re-taking the admissions test, re-taking undergraduate science courses, taking additional science courses, and/or applying to formal post-baccalaureate (post-bac) programs geared toward helping candidates strengthen their qualifications. The National Association of Advisors for the Health Professions (NAAHP) has posted an excellent introduction to post-bac programs in their Resources for Students, and there's a new common application for programs, PostBacCAS.

It's also helpful to continue strengthening other aspects of your candidacy by getting additional shadowing, volunteering, service, working and research experience.

Many re-applicants are accepted! For example, at the KU School of Medicine, one-fourth to one-third of the seats usually go to re-applicants.

If medicine or veterinary medicine, and you're not accepted as a re-applicant, you may want to consider applying to international schools.

If you decide to pursue other careers, the University Career Center can help you clarify your career values and goals, and apply for related internships, jobs and graduate programs.

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